Security engineering for energy and environmental sustainability issuesAnd its impact on Gulf relations and the Mediterranean space
Specializing in Environmental Energy Affairs and Development
The research in the security aspect of the relations between the actors active in the Gulf region and the Mediterranean space, took an important place in the analyzes of researchers interested in this geopolitical and vital region, which is considered the lifeblood and the air that the countries in it breathe. Especially since they are areas rich in natural resources, and hotspots in the world in terms of levels of biodiversity, and are sensitive with the escalation of environmental threats at all levels, which have become a threat to the natural environment for humans and living organisms, due to the repercussions and political and economic complexities that the world is witnessing, and the mutual influences Between energy issues, environmental issues, climate change, and the necessary endeavors to achieve sustainable development, in addition to the fluctuations in the global market, which affect the global economy in general, and the economies of the countries of the region.
In this context, the concept of energy security in all its aspects, concepts, dimensions, objectives and requirements, and its close connection with environmental security (vital security), sustainable development, natural resources, human and institutional capabilities, geographical location, global variables and geopolitical balances, emerges as a focus for joint Arab-Gulf regional action by looking at the possibility of enhancing cooperation and integration. The Gulf Mediterranean as a tool for energy services in a safe, secure, reliable and economically, socially and environmentally acceptable manner, which requires good management of natural resources efficiently, through strong support for cooperation based on the principle of integration and planning for crisis management from a harmonious and effective point of view, and the development of community capacity-building programs with a database And high-quality information, and the adoption of a clear general vision on the establishment of unified regional energy markets to meet the growing demand to bring about a kind of relative stability, in order to secure modern energy services and double their efficiency by increasing the share of renewable energies in the regional mix of energy consumption, which will carry with it many social benefits. economic (strong regional industries) and environmental in the long term; In particular, environmental security, which is one of the components of human security and one of the central issues in environmental issues, and is referred to as vital security, in terms of the services provided by ecosystems for the well-being of human societies, with emergency steps taken at all levels, including the assessment and valuation of natural wealth as a deterrent security step for biological degradation. for the region.
This calls for the need for the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council and the Eastern Mediterranean, in light of the current repercussions, to build an institutional security engineering based on the foundations of cooperation in coordination and agreement to develop common goals and interests among countries through a joint integration of their efforts in order to confront supply security and protect regional and global climate change. and dissemination of the necessary technology.
Hence the importance of our focus, in this research paper, on defining the concept of the regional security system and the security dilemma associated with a set of strategic axes at the level of the studied region. Among them, we mention: issues of energy, natural resources, the effects of technological progress, sustainable development, food security…etc.
Key words: energy security – biosecurity – environmental sustainability
Since the industrial revolution, energy has played a fundamental and decisive role in the global economy. Most of the conflicts have been about the supply and control of energy resources, as well as control over the areas where this material is available, so that it can provide its supplies in light of the increasing demand for it. Hence, energy security has become one of the determinants. The foreign and defense policy of countries, especially the rising powers, with the emergence of new players on the international and regional arena, has brought about shifts in the energy map at the global level.
Tension and fear of energy shortages have become topical issues and a major focus in international policy discussions, especially among major fossil energy consuming countries. Any imbalance in energy supplies to global markets or a rise in energy prices negatively affects the economy. No one can deny the repercussions of the 1973 energy crisis in terms of the horror of stopping factories and the low levels of production and economic growth, especially for the United States of America, which prompted President Jimmy Carter in January 1980 to issue what was known as the “Carter Doctrine” in which he stated: “Let our position be absolutely clear.” Any attempt by any external force to control the Persian Gulf region will be considered an attack on the vital interests of the United States of America, and that attack will be repelled by all necessary means, including military force.
This led to the adoption and formulation of strategies and policies to enhance energy security, ranging from threat, severity and softness, or the adoption of cooperative and open partnership programs to serve the interests of each party.
However, the developments that the world has known have shifted the issues of energy and ensuring the security of obtaining it from the trade-off between the economy and the environment, especially for emerging countries, which view energy as essential in order to achieve development. The increasing demand for it will lead to the occurrence of a wide range of economic, strategic, as well as environmental and social effects, which will increase the cost of securing it. Thus, we are facing new data that impose new procedures that are compatible with it.
Hence, the global energy policy became based on a strategic triangle, based on ensuring supplies, achieving economic growth, while winning the bet on climate-environmental compatibility. In addition to achieving sustainable developmental contexts (the seventh goal of the 2030 Sustainable Development Plan is to “ensure everyone’s affordable access to modern, reliable and sustainable energy services”.
Thus, the achievement of sustainable energy for all has become an essential matter for achieving the development goals, and the issue of adopting green energy is one of the important files that decision-makers and officials must work on developing, by establishing supportive mechanisms for it.
What is certain here is that we live in a world that is constantly evolving and advancing, with more complex data and challenges that may affect all international interactions, especially with the increasing global demand for energy services, which has created an extraordinary deal. .
This importance gained by energy, in turn, was reflected in the areas of its presence, so that we have on the international arena areas with a geopolitical dimension, as is the case with the Gulf region, especially the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, which is considered a region that has a unique privacy in terms of its richness in the most important energy resources. In addition to the emergence of several concepts surrounding this strategic matter, such as the concept of energy security, which ranks second after the defense of national security in the foreign policy agendas of states. And what goes on in its orbit takes on a new dimension with the developments and changes that the world has known. Bypassing the traditional approach based on securing and guaranteeing energy sources and avoiding energy crises, towards a joint integration of efforts
That is why we find the Gulf Cooperation Council countries seeking to form a security system according to an engineering structure that protects the nature of life and the systems associated with it and with its regional environment, especially in the Mediterranean, with its changes, influences and developments, which included several issues of vital dimensions that impose engineering from a participatory and cooperative perspective in confronting them. One of the most important of these issues The issue of environmental security.. and creating a safety belt for the future to manage the crises that could result.
That is why we seek, through this study, to link the extent of the impact exercised by the security measures taken to ensure energy security in the Gulf region on global politics and on international relations in general, in light of the imbalance in distribution. It is clearly manifested in the formation of an energy security system according to an engineering structure that protects the nature of life and the systems associated with it within the Gulf Cooperation Council countries with their regional surroundings, especially in the Mediterranean space.
In this context, we will work on framing the concept of energy security in terms of its nature, fields, modern trends and dimensions, the governing principles and strategies that enhance it, and the means of guaranteeing it adopted by the GCC countries. Especially since the countries of this region are greatly affected by the transformations that take place in the surrounding regional environment. The more transformations occur in the region, the greater the complexities and security problems of the Gulf countries, prompting these countries to strengthen ties and alliances to secure and maintain internal security.
To clarify the matter in an engineering manner, and in an analytical and deductive manner, the analytical approach was adopted to show the policies and strategies taken to ensure energy security and the methods of their formulation.
The first axis: energy security in its regional and global dimensions
The concept of energy security is linked to several influencing factors and variables, some of which are internal related to natural resources, costs, levels of knowledge, access to technologies, political stability, institutional building, and economic and social development..and others are external; It is related to the trends of the global energy market, international relations, bilateral, regional and international cooperation and the resulting commitments. The concept of energy security has evolved over time to include topics related to biosecurity.
Previously, the definitions devoted to security had a narrow dimension, confined to military security issues and the centrality of state security as the main reference in security analysis. However, the developments of the international community and the interaction between its units created new threats that prompted security studies to adopt new theoretical approaches explaining security in a way that accommodates all new security threats, which opened the intellectual and academic debate on the need to broaden and deepen the concept of security in light of the openness of environmental agendas. And the new economic, social and political, which paved the way for the stage of the renaissance in security studies.
In this context, the Copenhagen School is considered among the most prominent schools that called for reviewing, expanding and deepening the concept of security to other dimensions that derive their theoretical origins in international relations from the book of theorist Barry Buzan: People, Fear, the Problem of National Security in International Relations: people state and fear: The National Security Problem in International Relations, published in 1991. The studies of the Copenhagen School are based on the social manifestations of security, in the sense that security is not a static concept. between countries.. .
Hence, a special track for security studies was established. It allows overcoming the limits of traditional strategic studies and classical approaches in international relations, by extending the field of research beyond the military aspect, and thus the priority of lower politics becomes environmental, economic and development issues… in exchange for the retreat of the so-called higher policy issues centered on military issues. It is clear that the beneficial contributions in this direction belong to the alternative schools with a mixed influence to provide a set of theoretical foundations.
The distinctive thing about security studies is the possibility of defining security areas and sectors (as shown in the diagram below).
Contributions of security studie
Expand and deepen the concept
Being a social construct
through practice and dynamically
Division of security into areas (sectors):
The political sector – the economic sector
The social sector – the military sector
Environmental Sector – Societal Sector
Defining security in terms of geographical scope:
Security Territories – Security Subcomponents
Developments in defining the concept of security
One of the most important contributions made by the Copenhagen School is the regional dimension of security. Barry Buzan referred to this concept with the term security complexe, which he defined as including “a group of countries in which their basic security concerns are closely related to each other, so that their National security cannot be viewed realistically in isolation from each other. It is the theory that governed and still governs the policies of the Gulf Cooperation Council states in their adopted policies. Most of the Gulf countries realize that the security system in their region is based on the cooperation of all countries in achieving stability in the region, and that any breach of security in any of the Gulf countries could lead to a breach. In the security of other countries, this is why I sought to strengthen collective security within the framework of the Gulf Cooperation Council.
This requires us to link the transformation based on the level of cognitive and theoretical frameworks to understand the concept of energy security and its dimensions, and the extent of the impact of these transformations on the process of engineering and building energy security initiatives for the Gulf and the Mediterranean region, and then the extent to which these countries realize the importance of formulating their own security systems. Environmental security is one of the components of human security. One of the central topics in environmental issues, referred to as biosecurity, is based on its internal components and capabilities and its connection to the international system in the second axis of this scientific paper.
1) Energy security and its recent trends
The studies that dealt with energy security were characterized by distinction among them, because it is a confusing concept, especially in light of the difficulty of agreeing on a specific definition for it. Dealing with energy security as a real issue, while the second group dealt with energy security as an imaginary concept that is not linked to a specific reality
However, the reality has proven that the vital interests of any position of power are linked to the flow of energy concentrated in oil. Control over it means ensuring the continued functioning of the industrial machine and the military machine together, i.e. prosperity and strength, an important factor in determining the balance of power in war. This importance brings us back to mind what Lord Curzon said during World War I, “that the Allies generalized to victory over a wave of oil, and that the lack of oil was an important factor in the defeat of the Germans.” In the same vein, says Dr. “Herbert Wiese,” head of the government committee. Shared oil during World War II (Our experience reaffirmed the need for large quantities of oil to fight the war, and how it is a decisive element in victory and defeat.) This importance gained by energy, especially oil, was in turn reflected in the areas of its confined presence in general in specific regions (in the Middle East Hence the declaration of Winston Churchill, First Commander of the British Navy, that safety and confidence in oil lies in diversity alone.Therefore, the traditional approach in dealing with the issue of energy security was based on the security of supply by focusing on Availability of sufficient production to secure entry to oil and other sources of energy in sufficient quantities to prevent energy crises.
This definition is based on supply security. This raises several problems related to the stability of energy markets, and the issue of the appropriate price. Add to this the transformations that the world has known, and their significant impact on energy issues, where the absence of energy security is no longer linked to stopping supplies as the only source of threat. Taking into account the environmental, social and developmental dimensions and the political situation of the producing countries… and other considerations.
Some studies have begun to present a long list of threats to energy security. Among them are armed conflicts, piracy and even natural disasters. On the other hand, looking at the distribution of hydrocarbon energy globally, it shows us that the largest proportion of global reserves are concentrated in regions suffering from political instability. There are also environmental risks posed by global warming and climate change.
In addition, the general fear of the ultimate energy security nightmare: that nuclear materials could fall into the hands of terrorist organizations. These organizations can carry out attacks on energy complex transmission networks and make attractive targets for those who focus on societal disruption…
All of these variables prompted researchers and politicians to reconsider the traditional concept of energy security, but the strange thing is that we do not find agreement yet on a specific definition of the concept, and the link between it and the concepts of national and global security. This is due to a discrepancy between consuming and producing countries in defining the concept, in addition to a tendency that the issue of energy security requires extraordinary dealings that go beyond the economic dimension to other issues.
What can be concluded from the foregoing is that the concept of energy security changes its form and its various dimensions from one period to another and from one country to another. One of the most important modern and comprehensive definitions of all dimensions is the previous definition provided by international institutions such as the World Bank, the International Energy Agency and the United Nations.
As a researcher specialized in the field of energy studies of all kinds, and in light of the transformations in energy issues, it can be said that energy security refers to “those flexible energy systems. This flexible system will be able to withstand threats through a set of direct security measures – such as monitoring and guarding – and other Direct activities such as diversifying energy sources and relying on safer infrastructures that are less vulnerable to risks.
2) Energy security challenges in the Gulf and Middle East
Given the essential role that energy plays in all life and economic activities, the issue of energy security has become one of the strategic axes in the policies of states, which has led to raising several issues, including oil prices, the issue of reserves, continuity of supplies, and the importance of the strategic reserve stock of fuel, especially in the event of sharp and unexpected fluctuations In energy markets (as is the case with the recent Ukrainian-Russian war) due to the fact that it curbs the need to buy oil, and securing energy services requires access to reasonable and acceptable costs.
Energy prices, as part of the global energy security system, constitute a major concern for oil and gas producing and exporting countries. And if the consumer suffers from the risk of interruption in supply or access to appropriate technology, then the suffering of the producer and the supplier may be more acute. Therefore, there is a common interest between the producer and the consumer in obtaining financing to invest in investments and equip oil and gas facilities, because this allows for increased production and continuity of sales (the interest of the producer) and the availability of fuel in the markets and the lack of inflation in its prices (the interest of the consumer). There are also gains for some countries, which pass oil supplies And gas on its lands (transit / corridor countries), as it depends on the revenues of transit in its budgets, and therefore it is important for these supplies to continue.
Hence, the peculiarity of the Gulf region and the Mediterranean space emerges in that it includes energy-producing and exporting countries, and relies heavily on financial revenues from oil and gas sales, and other countries whose budgets bear the cost of energy imports to secure their needs, which are known for their high energy consumption, due to several reasons, the most important of which are the circumstances The climatic nature of the desert and the accompanying high temperatures, as the need for cooling, air conditioning and water production increases. The energy mix is mainly based on the hydrocarbon resources available in the region, with about 30 percent of the total oil reserves in the world, and about 20 percent of the total natural gas reserves. This is what the figure below shows about the percentages of energy produced from electricity production plants in the Arab countries
These resources have played a central role in meeting the energy needs of the GCC states, but the changing dynamics of the energy market at the local and international levels have created pressures on these countries to re-evaluate their energy policies, because this consumption lacks effective rationalization policies in light of the application of electric energy subsidy policies, which is What has put it in front of challenges related to the environment and climate changes associated with international obligations that affect the biosecurity in the region and the ecological diversity in the region and the Mediterranean space. The global warming resulting from the emissions of greenhouse gases resulting from the combustion of hydrocarbons, in addition to the increase in the demand for energy in the world, is one of the most important factors that push countries to search for an alternative to traditional sources of energy. Although the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council enjoy a large abundance of renewable energy resources such as solar energy and wind energy, fossil fuels still dominate primary energy consumption, and the share of renewable energy does not exceed more than one percent.
3) Determining bio-environmental security according to the securitization theory
The media and academics increasingly include issues of environmental degradation and resource scarcity under the rubric of security. This led to many intense debates about the advantages and disadvantages of linking the fields of environment and security, which were previously seen as separate from each other, but thanks to what the Copenhagen School brought about what is called securitization, it became possible to add a security dimension to a specific issue. How is that.
In this regard, Buzan argues that the theory of securitization is based on a series of interrelated processes. The first link in the chain is the stage of depoliticization (that is, this issue is not considered a political issue, it may be a social, cultural or environmental issue…), As for the second episode, it expresses the process of politicization (meaning that this issue becomes present in public policy discussions), so that we reach, in the third episode, the securitization process (at this stage the issue moves from the field of lower politics to the field of higher politics, because the issue becomes a real threat to security.
The basic essence of securitization theory is its consideration of security as a discursive act that is endorsed by elites and decision-makers, and this is what Weaver pointed out by saying: “Something is a security problem when the elites declare it to be.”
By projecting this process on the environmental file, we note that the environment did not receive popular, political and academic attention (the first stage), after which various concepts and opinions on environmental issues appeared in global politics to denote the meaning of sensitivity, urgency and priority of environmental issues (the second stage), then it was followed by the next stage The third one focused more on the causal relationship between environmental change (especially scarcity of resources) and violent conflicts. This approach contributed to expanding the security agenda for both security theories and conflicts alike. The security equation expanded in the last stage, and moved from focusing on inputs – sources. Insecurity and threats to the security of the state, including environmental threats – to focus on outputs as well and then shifted later towards the individual and the group.
The period of emergence of the term dates back to the mid-seventies of 1970, and it was consolidated in the mid-eighties of 1980 when the Brundtland Report in 1987 included a chapter on environmental security, then the period of professional investigation and evaluation of the term passed until the mid-nineties of 1990 when it attracted attention as a topic that was dealt with more extensively as this is considered The concept is relatively new and somewhat controversial.
In general, environmental security, which is considered one of the components of human security and is referred to as vital security, can be defined as one of the central issues in environmental issues. by developing mechanisms and programs for that.
The second axis: regional cooperation and partnerships are the safety valve against energy crises
The prevailing energy system in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries relies on an unsustainable pattern of energy consumption, based on fossil fuels, in addition to policies that support the hydrocarbon sector with ineffective methods of energy production. Which calls for the need to develop plans to conserve energy and diversify its resources, in order to mitigate the effects of the rapid economic and social growth in their countries. It is not possible to consider energy security without looking at the issues related to vital security, and among the most dangerous of these threats, which impose comprehensive and urgent cooperation, is the fear of terrorist groups possessing weapons of mass destruction, riots, immigration of all kinds, the refugee crisis, and the spread of epidemics, an issue of change The climate and the environmental crisis, which has become a threat to the natural environment for humans and living organisms, and the loss of many ecosystem services that make human life possible, especially since there are many warnings issued by organizations and agencies of the catastrophic situation that the region’s environment is known as threats affecting primarily human security as well as security the National.
There is no doubt that the Gulf states are fully aware of these threats and the challenges they face, which prompted the foreign and interior ministers of the GCC states to put this issue at the top of the agenda, to form a unified vision on the issue of energy security and the related environmental and food security. Stability in the Gulf, through the approach of a collective security system and the establishment of a group of specialized institutions to promote the integration of sources and means of renewable energy to be part of the national energy package in their countries. On the one hand, then work on the option of expanding the Gulf Cooperation Council to include other countries, which will contribute to strengthening the building of a multilateral security system with a common vision on the other hand.
Notably, however, there are a variety of obstructions and some institutional and technical challenges that must be overcome if governments are to maximize outreach, achieve their stated objectives, and reap the associated benefits.
Therefore, before addressing these supportive policies and strategies to make the energy sector more efficient, the focus will initially be on defining the Gulf region and the Mediterranean space as strategic areas, and as an area rich in natural resources, especially solar and wind energy, and the unique and fertile variety of ecological diversity. Then clarify the possibilities of regional partnerships and cooperation.
1) The strategic and economic importance of the Gulf region and the Mediterranean space:
It goes without saying that the Gulf region is of great strategic and economic importance, and this importance is magnified by the presence of regional dimensions for the region. and then for the security of the Gulf; This is as it appears in the region’s organic link with geographic regions and its control over waterways of great importance to global security and economy alike. Because it connects three continents, namely Asia, Africa and Europe, in view of these characteristics of its geographical location, the Arab Gulf countries have become dominant over the important access points between the world’s regions, and they have come to control the most important roads for transport and trade, as they are close to the Gate of the Comet and the Suez Canal, in addition to their adjacency to the Strait of Hormuz
The Gulf region gains its importance from the fact that there are two most important strategic variables linked to world security and stability. They are: the ruling strategic location, and strategic resources, primarily oil.
The strategic location ruling the Gulf region has historically made it the “neck of the world”; Since whoever controls it will be able to “strangle the world”, in addition to possessing the most important and dangerous production tool known to history (oil), which is an indispensable material for the global economy as a whole.
If the strategic location attracted the attention of the countries of the world, the discovery of oil added a vital element to the Gulf. Because oil represents the backbone of modern civilization, and Saudi Arabia is considered one of the largest oil producers, and the small Gulf countries come in second place, which includes Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman. These countries are affiliated under the umbrella of OPEC, which controls fuel prices through controlling production. This strategic and economic importance of the region made it a target and a stage for the competition of international powers aiming to control it. Therefore, it was not surprising that the issue of security and stability in the Gulf attracted the attention of the major international powers, as what the region witnessed – and still is – in terms of events and developments in times of peace and war, was nothing but a natural result of that interest and importance.
This is confirmed by reports issued by the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), that the Arab region has been at the forefront of global energy sources for the past fifty years, thanks to the huge reserves of oil and natural gas that its countries possess, which will keep it for decades to come as a major partner. influential in the global economy.
The Mediterranean region is also considered one of the most important waterways, of great geostrategic value, because it is one of the important waterways commercially and militarily and an artery for the flow of hydrocarbons, which is the backbone of global industry… Therefore, its straits (Gibraltar, the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles) remained the subject of conflict between states and nations, as they are vital corridors for armies And for migrations across the world, which explains the enormous ethnic, linguistic, religious, cultural and civilizational diversity of the Mediterranean basin, which made historians and sociologists call it the “center of the world”.
It is a bridge linking a group of cooperative relations in the various political and economic aspects, making the group of countries linked in the long term to the Mediterranean countries, and working to enhance cooperation with them in the region. Thus, it includes not only the Black Sea countries and Iran within the Mediterranean countries, but also other countries such as Jordan, Sudan, which has special relations with Egypt that make it dependent on it in its trade exchanges, in addition to Mauritania by virtue of its affiliation with the Arab Maghreb Union and its special relations with Algeria and Morocco. And France, as well as Portugal, which despite its Atlantic front, most of its interests, whether political, economic or cultural, are towards the European continent in the east and the Mediterranean Sea in the south.
According to the security agenda and its relations with European security, in this case we find two mediums: an eastern one and a western one, with different problems and interests. In the eastern average there is the Turkish-Greek conflict, the Arab-Israeli conflict, and the Balkan crises; In the Western Mediterranean, the biggest problem is the relations of the Arab Maghreb countries with a unified Europe…
In connection with the subject of the research, and in order to leave a special imprint for us as a researcher specialized in energy, environment and development affairs, I will work to identify the capabilities of the two regions in the field of alternative energies and ways to strengthen regional partnerships between them.
2) The importance of the future role of oil reserves in the region:
The oil boom caused by the Ukraine war in the early 2000s demonstrated the importance of the Gulf states in the global energy market. As it played a major role in global oil supplies, the total oil reserves of the six Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, Sultanate of Oman, the Emirates, and Kuwait) may exceed 510 billion barrels, constituting 32.7 percent of the total proven global reserves of 1.55 trillion barrels. The total production of these countries of crude oil is approximately 18 million barrels per day, which constitutes 19 percent of the total global demand of approximately 99 million barrels per day, according to the following data::
- Saudi Arabia has the second largest proven reserves of crude oil, according to the data of the Ministry of Energy in the Kingdom, with more than 270 billion barrels, constituting about 17.3 percent of the global reserves. It is the third largest producer of crude oil in the world, with an average daily rate of 10.2 million barrels per day, according to OPEC data, and the largest exporter of crude globally, with an average of 6.9 million barrels per day. Saudi oil accounts for approximately 10.7 percent of the total daily demand for crude globally, and rises to 13 percent of the total daily demand, when production is at its maximum capacity.
- The UAE has proven reserves of 107 billion barrels, placing it in fifth place in the world, after Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq. In terms of oil production, the UAE currently produces nearly 3 million barrels per day, which constitutes 3.4 percent of the total daily global demand. The country has the immediate ability to increase production to 3.5 million barrels per day, which constitutes nearly 4 percent of global demand.
- Kuwait, which has the sixth largest oil reserves in the world with a total of 101.5 billion barrels, produces about 2.62 million barrels per day, which constitutes 2.9 percent of the total global demand. Kuwait has the immediate ability to increase production up to 3.2 percent of production, which constitutes 3.6 percent of global d
- The Sultanate of Oman is an average producer of crude oil, with a daily rate of one million barrels, which constitutes 1.1 percent of global demand. The expected reserves of crude oil and condensate for the Sultanate by the end of 2020 amounted to about 4.706 billion barrels.
- Bahrain, as it is a small producer of crude oil with less than 350 thousand barrels per day, while Qatar produces an average of 700 thousand barrels per day.
In addition to the Gulf countries, it is considered:
- Iraq has the fourth largest proven reserves of 145 billion barrels of oil, and the fourth largest producer of crude in the world with a daily average of 4.4 million barrels. Iraq has the immediate ability to increase oil production to 4.7 million barrels per day, which constitutes 5 percent of global demand.
- Iran, which has the third largest proven oil reserves with 208.6 billion barrels, and produces about 3.9 million barrels per day under natural conditions, which constitutes 4.2 percent of the total global demand.
- The importance of the Arab Gulf states in the traditional energy industry is highlighted, especially at a time of geopolitical crises, such as the current one.
Undoubtedly, awareness of the importance of the future role of oil and the size of its proven reserves within the Gulf region presents many challenges and economic risks to its countries. As a result of its continued dependence mainly on “depleted resources” as a main source of income, according to development indicators that predict a drop in barrel prices; Which may clearly affect the budgets of these countries. In addition to the exacerbation of the job seekers crisis, the delay in economic integration and cooperation, the reform of the imbalance in the population structure and the national labor force, the modest contribution of the private sector to the gross domestic product, the limited diversification of income sources, and the growing consumption of energy sources locally…
Faced with this situation, there is an urgent need for financial policy planners of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries to take advantage of the financial surpluses achieved in diversifying the strategic source of income, and sustaining sources of income through the establishment of green growth policies, and the transition to low-carbon economies, which would reflect trends in productivity. And to enable the region to grow at a faster rate. Especially since these countries enjoy a clear richness in solar energy and wind energy, which are the cornerstones of environmentally friendly renewable energy plans, which will create a good and effective business environment. The Arab region is also located within the solar belt, which reaches an average annual total solar radiation between 1600 – 2400 kilowatt hours / square meter.
3) Enhancing energy security strategies through integrated regional projects
The Arab world, especially the Gulf region and the Mediterranean basin, is considered the right place for the production of solar energy and wind energy, especially in the desert areas, where the sun’s rays flatten stronger and for a long time, meaning that every square kilometer of Arab lands receives sun rays equivalent in its energy to the production of 1.2 million barrels. of oil, in addition to an additional option to rely on wind energy, given the winds of appropriate speed on its long coasts.
That is why the countries of the region must work to achieve the desired shift in the renewable energy sector, by exploiting the high financial oil revenues on the one hand, and benefiting from the appropriate climatic conditions, and integrating this into sustainable development projects in the region. This leads to the creation of more jobs, and there is an opportunity and need to shift from single projects at the country level to integrated regional projects. That is why regional projects are a framework for unifying visions and a fertile field for benefiting from the expertise provided and financial and technical support, in addition to analytical studies of situations and regions with the provision of future directions.
In this context, a study of a future vision in the field of electricity from 2000 to 2050 was completed. This study indicates the possibility of transferring electricity from solar energy from the Middle East and North Africa region to Europe through a project that includes these countries called Desertec, which is the most ambitious and capable of bringing about strategic change. In international and regional energy relations in the region.
This project, which was adopted and planned in 2003 by the Club of Rome, the Jordanian Center for Research and Development and the German Aerospace Center (dlr), represents the establishment of an interconnected network that is supplied with electricity from solar and wind stations extending from Morocco to Saudi Arabia through Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. These stations generate and produce energy. The bulk of it is exported via submarine cables towards Europe.
The project aims to provide between 12% and 50% of the European market’s electricity needs, with estimated quantities of 220 gigawatts over 50 years at a cost of $220 billion, with the participation of major European banks and energy companies. dollars in 2005 to create 100,000 jobs in the region; Sustainable energy in the European Union countries can depend to a large extent on renewable energy generation, including the recovery of solar electric energy from the Middle East and North Africa region, as the balanced mixture between renewable energy sources with reserves of fossil fuels and the application of energy efficiency systems (especially hybrid system) can save a large amount of energy and is also available on demand.
In addition, the transmission of electricity from these regions towards Europe is a preliminary step towards realizing the existence of a common field between the Middle East, North Africa and Europe, which begins with the participation and creation of a free trade area for renewable energy.
Also, we do not forget the steps taken by the Gulf Cooperation Council countries through pioneering and exemplary projects and programs to localize renewable energy technology, which show the extent of national and regional capabilities in the field of renewable energy, while localizing the best technological methods to maximize the benefit from the opportunities available naturally, climatically, humanly and economically to establish and implement dimensions and goals. Environmental sustainability that focuses on the guiding principle of compromise between the conflicting objectives of economic development, environmental protection, and social progress, in order to respond to current and future needs; By embracing projects rooted in reforestation, wetland conservation and protection of natural areas from resource harvesting.
Energy issues and its politics were the subject of intense and long debates about who controls these resources and who benefits from their exploitation and about the environmental consequences of this exploitation. These issues are still to this day, and have even become part of our historical fabric. Especially the security aspect related to supplying it at an appropriate cost, taking into account the environmental and developmental dimensions. That is why we find many institutes and institutions that focus on studying and analyzing everything that matters to energy because it is the backbone of life.
Energy has come to play an important role at the international level, as it decides whether our lamps will remain lit or extinguished, whether our agriculture and industry will move forward or retreat, and in fact whether we can defend ourselves or not, and for this simple reason we must Energy policy is one of the highest priorities for any administration, because it is of great importance in development programs with regard to the development of the future of our nation. Therefore, expanding access to modern energy is an important condition for human development on the economic, social and environmental levels.
It should also be emphasized that the Gulf region has remained of great geopolitical importance to the world and will continue to be an influential actor in energy security, and that it may be vulnerable to potential regional crises aimed primarily at guiding and rationalizing global energy prices more than anything else. In this context, the problem of excessive consumption emerges in various applications, which contributed in the largest part to the emergence of issues that raised international problems, the most important of which is the climate crisis and the depletion of resources, which with it other systems supporting economic and social life lack instability, and to undermine the implementation of development plans and endanger human security and livelihoods At risk… especially the Arab region, one of the regions most vulnerable to the effects of climate change in the world, especially the problem of water scarcity and the change in precipitation patterns in terms of their temporal and spatial distribution, and the shrinking of snow cover in the highlands and mountains, and it is also expected that climate change will affect the social and economic aspects.. .
Therefore, the economic, financial, technical and geostrategic realities require the planners of the financial policies of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries to take advantage of the financial surpluses achieved in diversifying the strategic sources of income, sustaining the sources of income of the main budgets, and investing in projects that support the process of economic development. This is to ensure that any uncalculated reaction to their economies is avoided if oil prices are subject to fluctuations in the future.
- Muhammad Amin: The importance of oil in the formulation of American national security. Cultural Space, 6 June 2008
- Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear, London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1983
- Tawfiq Bosti: The Copenhagen School Towards Expanding and Deepening the Concept of Security, Egyptian Institute for Studies, March 22, 2019
- Abdel Aziz Saeed: The New World Order, Present and Future. Arab Writers Union, Damascus 1990
- Kegan Paul Ltd.: Oil control is a struggle between East and West in the Gulf (translated by Alawi Darwish Kayal) Ishtar for translation and printing – London 2001
- the world bank, energy security issues, Moscow – washington.dc, December, 2005.
- Renewable Energy Development in the Gulf Cooperation Council Countries: Status, Barriers, and PolicyOptions
- Barry Buzan, “Is International Security Possible? », Paper Presented at: New Thinking about Strategy and International Security (conference), edited by Ken Booth, London: Harper Collins Academic, 1991.
- Yves Lacoste: Geopolitique de la Mediterranee, Paris: Armand Colin, 2009.
Theses and research
- Jamila Murabet: Renewable and non-renewable energies and the repercussions of transformation, a doctoral dissertation in public law, University of Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdullah, Morocco, in 2018 (published in the form of a book by the Arab Organization
- Shayeb Al-Daraa, Aisha: Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century and Mechanisms for Confronting Them, Al-Maser Research, University of Algiers-Ben Youssef Ben Khadda – Faculty of Political Science and Information, Department of Political Science and International Relations, p. 71 in 2010
- Zawy Rabeh: Building Security Initiatives in the Mediterranean Sea with the Triple Bim of Security / Power / Peace of Power, a memorandum for obtaining a master’s degree in political science, Mauloud Al-Maamari University, 2014
- Jamila Murabit: Security Engineering for Ecosystems in the Mediterranean, Al-Manara Journal for Studies and Research, Issue October 2021
- Muhammad Azhar Saeed Al-Sammak: “The Geopolitical Weight of the Arab Mediterranean Countries and their Future,” The Arab Future, Year: 15, Issue, 162 August 1992
- Younesi Walid: The Security Dilemma in the Mediterranean, The Arab Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 2 June 2019,
- Suleiman Abdullah Al-Harbi, “The Concept of Security: Its Levels, Formula and Threats: A Theoretical Study of Concepts and Frameworks,” The Arab Journal of Political Science, Issue 19, Summer 2008,
- The Agency’s report entitled “Recommendations for Regional Energy Efficiency Policies”, 2014. 9 rue de la Fédération, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France
- Environmental Security: The Political Encyclopedia
- For more on the Millennium Declaration and the post-2015 development agenda known as Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, see the following links:
- The map shows the most regions in the world rich in fossil energy, according to statistics from the German Energy Agency: www.renewables-madz-in-germany.com
 Muhammad Amin: The importance of oil in formulating American national security. Cultural Space, June 6, 2008, pg. 5
 for more on the millennium declaration and the post-2015 development agenda known as transforming our world: the 2030 agenda for sustainable development, see the following links:
 jamila mourabit: renewable and non-renewable energies and the repercussions of transformation, phd thesis, sidi mohamed ben abdallah university, faculty of legal, economic and social sciences, fez, 2018, p. 72.
 Hajjaj Boukhdour and a group of researchers: Regional and international developments and their economic impacts on the Gulf states and energy security.2014 p 264
 barry buzan, people, states and fear, london: harvester wheatsheaf, 1983, pp.218-238
 tawfiq bosti: the copenhagen school towards expanding and deepening the concept of security, egyptian institute for studies, march 22, 2019, pp. 21-22
 my own design based on the above data.
 suleiman abdullah al-harbi, “the concept of security: its levels, formula and threats: a theoretical study of concepts and frameworks,” the arab journal of political science, issue 19, summer 2008, p. 20
 it must be noted in this context that there are many side studies that dealt with energy security, such as the study of the future of energy security, which focuses on the cases of four countries from the perspective of supply and demand, and the study of climate changes and the shift in the global energy supply, and studies that discussed the issue of energy security in major states, such as the study of american energy security, energy security in china and india, and studies that dealt with nato and energy security… these studies are criticized for being one-sided as they dealt with the issue of energy security from one angle without taking into account other influencing factors, especially international developments and changes that the international community has known. .
 abdul aziz saeed: the new world order, present and future. arab writers union, damascus 1990, pg.99
 Kegan Paul Ltd.: Oil control is a struggle between East and West in the Gulf (translated by Alawi Darwish Kayal), Ishtar for translation and printing – London 2001, p. 28
 a study by the world bank defined the concept as: “ensuring that the state can produce and use energy sustainably and at an appropriate price, in a way that contributes to achieving economic growth by reducing poverty, and improving the standard of living of individuals, by facilitating access to modern energy services.” this study was entitled energy security issues, for more see: the world bank, energy security issues, moscow – washington.dc, december, 2005.
 the international energy agency and its member states have identified energy efficiency as the fastest and least expensive way to address energy security, environmental and economic challenges, as the agency has developed a set of twenty-five recommendations for energy efficiency policies, which have proven to be an effective means of raising awareness and obtaining high-level political support…more the iaea’s report, “recommendations for regional energy efficiency policies”, 2014 can be found here. 9 rue de la fédération, 75739 paris cedex 15, france.
 renewable energy development in the gulf cooperation council countries: status, barriers, and policyoptions
 salim qassoum, previous reference, p. 121
 barry buzan, « is international security possible? », paper presented at: new thinking about strategy and international security (conference), edited by ken booth, london: harper collins academic, 1991, p.31.
 salim qassoum, previous reference, p. 122
 from the environmentalist: a political encyclopedihttps://politicalencyclopedia.org/dictionary/%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%a3%d9%85%d9%86%20%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%a8%d9%8a%d8%a6%d9%8a
 jamila mourabit: security engineering for ecosystems in the mediterranean, al-manara journal for studies and research, the issue of sustainable development, october 2021.
 younesi walid: the security dilemma in the mediterranean, the arab journal of humanities and social sciences, volume 11, issue 2 june 2019, p. 351.
 muhammad yas khudair: gulf security in light of the new regional transformations, international studies, issue 53, p. 153.
 jamila mourabet: renewable and non-renewable energies and the repercussions of transformation, phd thesis in public law, sidi mohamed ben abdullah university, morocco, 2018, p.
 it was previously known as the sea that mediates the earth (in the ancient world). the romans called it mare nostrum, meaning “our sea,” when the romans were at the height of their power. the name it is now known by is derived from two latin words: medius, meaning the mediterranean, and terra, which means… yves lacoste: geopolitique de la méditerranée, paris: armand colin, 2009, p.17.
 in this context, for more information, see chapter
muhammad azhar saeed al-sammak: “the geopolitical weight of the arab mediterranean countries and their future,” the arab future, year: 15, issue, 162 august 1992, p. 25
 Zawy Rabeh: Building Security Initiatives in the Mediterranean with the Triple Bim of Security / Power / Peace of Power, a memorandum for obtaining a master’s degree in political science, Mouloud Al-Maamari University, 2014, pp. 100-103
 rashid al-bazim: the gulf states and the challenges of transformations in the field of energy, arab seiyasat magazine, issue 37, march 2009, p. 102
 khadija arafa muhammad: energy security and its strategic implications. naif university for security sciences, riyadh, first edition 2014, pg. 52
 hisham al-khatib: renewable energy sources, technical and economic developments (arab and international), the eighth arab energy conference, jordan, 2006, p. 14
 pater muhammad ali wardam: renewable energy in the world players. future prospects magazine. issue july 11, 2011, p. 36
 a study issued by the german center for aviation and space affairs (dlr) and the institute for grass dynamics research – department of systems analysis and engineering evaluation commissioned by the federal ministry for environmental affairs, nature conservation and security of nuclear reactors (bmu). -csp. pp. 1-2-3. it can also be found on the following website: www.dlr.de/tt/med-csp: … there is also a study in this context – issued by the german institute for international policy and security, entitled “solar energy coming from the desert, general conditions and perspectives” february third series 2010.
 jamila mourabit: the national strategy for renewable energies is a local and regional economic and development tributary, al-manara journal for studies and research, issue 34, 2021, pp. 3-4